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You searched for: collection:CHEM_study_films
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[movies]The Hydrogen Atom—As Viewed by Quantum Mechanics (advanced version) - CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
A 20 minute advanced version includes the complete content of the standard version plus a final section which contrasts the electron distributions of 1s, 2s and 2p orbitals. The principal quantum number, n, is introduced together with its relation to energy levels, number of orbitals and the number of nodal surfaces. Collaborator: Prof. George C. Pimentel, University of California, Berkeley.
Downloads: 955
[movies]Transuranium Elements - CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
This film, produced in the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory of the University of California, Berkeley, features four scientists who were principals in the discovery and identification of several of the transuranium elements. Glenn Seaborg reviews the historical problem of the placement of the transuranium elements in the periodic table. Burris Cunningham performs experiments showing that neptunium, plutonium, and americium have chemical properties similar to those of uranium, but that under the sam...
Downloads: 525
[movies]Molecular Spectroscopy - CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
The film uses laboratory experiments, molecular models, and animation to show details of the infrared light absorption process and its relation to molecular properties. The film stresses the concept of natural vibrational frequencies in molecules. Further, it demonstrates the use of the infrared spectrum in identifying molecules and determining their molecular structure. Collaborators: Professor Bryce Crawford, Jr., and Dr...
Downloads: 849 5.00 out of 5 stars5.00 out of 5 stars5.00 out of 5 stars5.00 out of 5 stars5.00 out of 5 stars(1 review)
[movies]Biochemistry and Molecular Structure - CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
The film demonstrates the role of molecular structure in determining biological activity. Correlation of the structure and biological activity of sulfanilamide with a vitamin essential for bacterial growth leads to a more general investigation of the biochemical nature of growth. Paper chromatography is used to separate some of the compounds which make up human cells. It is proposed that compounds similar to those found in cell chromosomes may stop cell growth and thus be useful in controlling c...
Downloads: 881
[movies]Vanadium - A Transition Element
Vanadium is studied as a typical transition element. The different oxidation states of vanadium and the corresponding colors are observed and then identified by means of a quantitative titration of vanadium (II) solution with cerium (IV) solution. The oxidation states and the observed colors are correlated with the electronic structures using an orbital board. The reaction with hydroxide ion and the formation of complex ions containing vanadium in different oxidation states are demonstrated...
Downloads: 359
[movies]Synthesis of an Organic Compound - CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
The film shows the synthesis of 2-butanone, a ketone, from 2-butanol, an alcohol, as an example of a common type of organic synthesis. It discusses three basic steps: synthesis, purification, identification. In the synthesis, 2-butanol is oxidized by sodium dichromate and sulfuric acid to yield 2-butanone. Purification is accomplished by solvent extraction, followed by distillation of the 2-butanone...
Downloads: 302
[movies]Nitric Acid - CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
Collaborator: Professor Harry H. Sisler, University of Florida, Gainesville. Produced in cooperation with the Manufacturing Chemists' Association. Nitric acid acts as an acid in the manufacture of chemical fertilizers; it acts as a base in the manufacture of nitro compounds; it acts as an oxidizing agent in many systems. In making the fertilizer, ammonium nitrate, from nitric acid, it is necessary to neutralize the acidity of HNO3...
Downloads: 441
[movies]Ionization Energy - CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
This film presents two methods of measuring ionization energy: photo-ionization, and electron bombardment. A high vacuum system is used with a simple conductivity cell. The photo-ionization of sodium by the use of a mercury light source and monochromator is carried out. The electron bombardment method is then demonstrated with gaseous sodium, and helium, argon and xenon. Animation shows what occurs on the atomic level during the ionization process...
Downloads: 530
[movies]Mechanism of an Organic Reaction - CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
A thorough study of the hydrolysis of an organic ester, methyl benzoate, shows that the discovery of a reaction mechanism includes a determination of the chemical equation, the structures of the reactants and products, the fate of each atom of the reactants, and the structures of the intermediate molecules. The concepts of bond polarity and the effect of varying the structure of the ester also provide valuable hints...
Downloads: 672
[movies]Lesson 17—A Discussion Among Teachers and the CHEM Study Staff—Concluding Panel Session - CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
Topics discussed in this panel session include the ability range of students for whom the CHEM Study materials are designed; problems some students have with quantitative concepts and manipulation of numbers; performance of CHEM Study students in freshman college courses; the rationale for presenting atomic theory and bonding late in the course; the possible effects of a detailed teacher's guide on teachers' creativity and initiative; the minimum content of the course that should be taught in a ...
Downloads: 99
[movies]Shapes and Polarities of Molecules - CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
Observations are made of electric effects, including deflections of streams of liquids by a charged rod, and changes in charging time of a capacitor. There is evidence that different molecules give two types of results: Some give very marked interactions with electric charges, while others give little effect. To explain these different results, a conceptual model is developed based on two types of molecules: Polar and non-polar...
Downloads: 493
[movies]CHEM Study Films Overview - CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
An overview of the CHEM Study films project.
Downloads: 433
[movies]The Hydrogen Atom—As Viewed by Quantum Mechanics (standard version) - CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
This film presents a description of the atom that is in accord with quantum mechanics. This description explains the energy levels and line spectrum of the hydrogen atom and furnishes the basis of contemporary theory of chemical bonding. The electron position in the atom is considered in terms of probability, and the meaning of a 1s orbital is clarified with a digital computer plot, two analogies, and animation...
Downloads: 867
[movies]High Temperature Research - CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
Why do we know more today than we did yesterday? One reason is that scientists engage in research. The excitement of discovering new knowledge through research is illustrated by studying the bond strength of gaseous titanium monosulfide. Its gaseous molecules as well as gaseous titanium and sulfur atoms are produced by the vaporization of the high melting crystalline titanium monosulfide at temperatures near 2000°K...
Downloads: 137
[movies]Bromine - Element from the Sea - CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
The high chemical reactivity of bromine plus the high solubilities of bromine compounds result in most of the world's bromine being in the oceans. For this reason the chemistry of an aqueous solution of bromine is explored. The process for recovering elemental bromine from sea water is then developed on a laboratory scale. The essential steps are 1) oxidation of bromide ion with chlorine, 2) concentration by reduction with sulfur dioxide to hydrogen bromide, and 3) re-oxidation followed by separ...
Downloads: 436
[movies]Discussion of "Wondering About Things" - CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley

Downloads: 210
[movies]A Research Problem: Inert (?) Gas Compounds - CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
This film conveys the intense excitement and deep personal involvement of research in the stimulating context of the first synthesis of one of the inert gas compounds. An actual research problem, the first synthesis of krypton difluoride, is traced from its inspiration to the first tentative success. A train for the pyrolytic preparation of XeF4 is shown. In extreme closeup, the colorful reaction of XeF4 with water is displayed and a crystal of XeO3 is detonated by tickling with a piece of tissu...
Downloads: 335
[movies]Vibration of Molecules - CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
All animation. The film shows the relationship between the structure of a molecule and its vibrational motions. Water, carbon dioxide, and methane are discussed in detail. The forms of the vibrations have been accurately calculated from spectral data. All vibrations have been slowed down by a factor of 10^14. The effect of molecular collision, or absorption of light, on molecular vibrations is illustrated...
Downloads: 1,759
[movies]Gas Pressure & Molecular Collisions - CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
The film explores the relationship between gaseous pressure and molecular collisions. The effects of varying the number of molecules per unit of volume and of varying the temperature are studied. The experimental study of the relative rates of effusion of hydrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and sulfur hexafluoride leads to the quantitative relationship between molecular weight, molecular velocity and absolute temperature...
Downloads: 557
[movies]Mars: Chemistry Looks for Life - CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
Does life exist anywhere else in the Universe besides on our planet? This question was posed as the Viking Spacecraft blasted off from Earth to continue the scientific exploration of Mars. The Viking Lander, millions of miles from the Earth, performs by remote control, chemical experiments which can determine the presence or absence of life by searching for the exponential "population explosion" that accompanies uncontrolled growth processes...
Downloads: 264
[movies]Molecular Motions - CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
Many properties of matter such as fluidity, vaporization and rates of chemical reactions, indicate that molecular motion must be occurring, and that the freedom of motion increases in going from the solid to the liquid to the gaseous state. The concepts of translational, rotational, and vibrational molecular motions allow the interpretation of the observed properties. The use of animation and dynamic models makes clear how the observed properties depend on the types of motion occurring at the mo...
Downloads: 343
[movies]Acid-Base Indicators - CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
Proton-donor-acceptor theory is used to interpret the experimental behavior of acid-base indicators. Experiments and animation show the effects on indicators of changing acidity. Equilibrium constants of four indicators are determined and the indicators arranged in order of decreasing acid strength. The competition among bases for protons is shown by mixing the indicators and showing that each changes color at different total acidity.
Downloads: 1,120
[movies]Catalysis - CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
Collaborator: Professor Richard E. Powell, University of California, Berkeley. Produced in cooperation with the Manufacturing Chemists' Association. The film emphasizes that catalysts are typical chemical reactants, being unique only in that catalysts are regenerated during the reaction. It demonstrates and interprets three simple catalyzed reactions: the decomposition of formic acid, using sulfuric acid as catalyst; the reaction between hydrogen and oxygen, using pure platinum as catalyst; and ...
Downloads: 544
[movies]Electric Interactions in Chemistry - CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
Observations of two spheres suspended from the terminals of a high voltage generator remind us of the principles that opposite charges attract, like charges repel, and uncharged bodies have no electric interaction. To determine quantitatively the effect of distance on electric force, a sensitive balance measures the force between two charged spheres. The distance is varied and the electric force is calculated from changes in balance readings...
Downloads: 599
[movies]Lesson 14— Teacher Training Introduction to "Vanadium— A Transition Element" - CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
Using chromium as an example, Professor Campbell shows that the transition metals are characterized by valence electrons in closely spaced energy levels. He then comments upon the difference in color between aqueous chromium nitrate solution and aqueous chromium chloride solution. The color difference and the incomplete precipitation of chloride from the latter solution is related to the formation of complex ions.
Downloads: 163
[movies]Molecular Structure and Health (A Revision of 'Biochemistry and Molecular Structure') - CHEM Study, College of Chemistry and Lawrence Hall of Science, U.C. Berkeley
The role of molecular structure in determining biological activity is shown. The correlation of the structure of sulfanilamide with that of a vitamin essential for bacterial growth leads to a more general investigation of the biochemical nature of growth. Paper chromatography is used to separate some of the material found in chromosomes. It is proposed that compounds similar to those found in chromosomes may stop cell division and thus be useful in controlling cancer...
Keywords: CHEM Study; chemical education; science education; Sputnik-era curriculum; biochemistry
Downloads: 651
[movies]Vanadium - A Transition Element (Second Edition) - CHEM Study, College of Chemistry and Lawrence Hall of Science, U.C. Berkeley
Vanadium is studied as a typical transition element. The different oxidation states of vanadium and the corresponding colors are observed and then identified by means of a quantitative titration of vanadium (II) solution with cerium (IV) solution. The oxidation states and the observed colors are correlated with the electronic structures using an orbital board. The reaction with hydroxide ion and the formation of complex ions containing vanadium in different oxidation states are demonstrated...
Keywords: CHEM Study; chemical education; science education; Sputnik-era curriculum; vanadium; transition element
Downloads: 403
[movies]Mechanism of an Organic Reaction (Second Edition) - CHEM Study, College of Chemistry and Lawrence Hall of Science, U.C. Berkeley
A study of the hydrolysis of the ester, methyl benzoate, shows that the discovery of a reaction mechanism includes a determination of the chemical equation, the structures of the reactants and products, the fate of each atom of the reactants, and the structures of the intermediate molecules. The concepts of bond polarity and the effect of varying the structure of the ester also provide valuable hints...
Keywords: CHEM Study; chemical education; science education; Sputnik-era curriculum; organic chemistry
Downloads: 542
[movies]Molecular Spectroscopy (Second Edition) - CHEM Study, College of Chemistry and Lawrence Hall of Science, U.C. Berkeley
Laboratory experiments, molecular models, and animation show details of the infrared light absorption process and its relation to molecular properties. The concept of natural vibrational frequencies in molecules is emphasized. The use of the infrared spectrum in identifying molecules and determining their molecular structure is demonstrated. Collaborators: Professor Bryce Crawford, Jr., and Dr. John Overend, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis...
Keywords: CHEM Study; chemical education; science education; Sputnik-era curriculum; spectroscopy
Downloads: 465
[movies]Gas Pressure & Molecular Collisions (Second Edition) - CHEM Study, College of Chemistry and Lawrence Hall of Science, U.C. Berkeley
The relationship between gaseous pressure and molecular collisions is explored. The effects on molecular collisions of varying the number of molecules per unit of volume and of varying the temperature are studied. The experimental study of the relative rates of effusion of hydrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and sulfur hexafluoride leads to the quantitative relationship among molecular mass, molecular velocity, and absolute temperature...
Keywords: CHEM Study; chemical education; science education; Sputnik-era curriculum; gas pressure
Downloads: 766
[movies]Electric Interactions in Chemistry (Second Edition) - CHEM Study, College of Chemistry and Lawrence Hall of Science, U.C. Berkeley
Observations of two spheres suspended from the terminals of a high voltage generator remind us of the principles that opposite charges attract, like charges repel, and uncharged bodies have no electric interaction. To determine quantitatively the effect of distance on electric force, a sensitive balance measures the force between two charged spheres. The distance is varied and the electric force is calculated from changes in balance readings...
Keywords: CHEM Study; chemical education; science education; Sputnik-era curriculum; electron attraction; electron repulsion
Downloads: 302
[movies]Shapes and Polarities of Molecules (Second Edition) - CHEM Study, College of Chemistry and Lawrence Hall of Science, U.C. Berkeley
Observations are made of electric effects, including deflections of streams of liquids by a charged rod, and changes in charging time of a capacitor. There is evidence that different molecules give two types of results: some give very marked interactions with electric charges, while others give little effect. To explain these different results, a conceptual model is developed based on two types of molecules: polar and non-polar...
Keywords: CHEM Study; chemical education; science education; Sputnik-era curriculum; polar molecules; non-polar molecules; molecular structure
Downloads: 775
[movies]Ionization Energy (Second Edition) - CHEM Study, College of Chemistry and Lawrence Hall of Science, U.C. Berkeley
Two methods of measuring ionization energy, photo-ionization, and electron bombardment, are shown. A high vacuum system is used with a simple cell to measure electric conductivity of gases. The photo-ionization of sodium by the use of a mercury light source and a monochromator is carried out. The electron-bombardment method is then demonstrated with sodium and three noble gases. Animation shows what occurs on the atomic level during the ionization process...
Keywords: CHEM Study; chemical education; science education; Sputnik-era curriculum; ionization energy
Downloads: 2,264
[movies]Molecular Motions (Second Edition) - CHEM Study, College of Chemistry and Lawrence Hall of Science, U.C. Berkeley
Many properties of matter such as fluidity, vaporization and rates of chemical reactions indicate that molecular motion must be occurring and that the freedom of motion increases in going from the solid to the liquid to the gaseous state. The concepts of translational, rotational, and vibrational molecular motions allow the interpretation of the observed properties. The use of animation and dynamic models makes clear how the observed properties depend on the types of motion occurring at the mole...
Keywords: CHEM Study; chemical education; science education; Sputnik-era curriculum; molecular motion
Downloads: 340
[movies]The Hydrogen Atom - As Viewed by Quantum Mechanics (Second Edition) - CHEM Study, College of Chemistry and Lawrence Hall of Science, U.C. Berkeley
A description of the atom that is in accord with quantum mechanics is presented. This description explains the energy levels and line spectrum of the hydrogen atom and furnishes the basis of contemporary theory of chemical bonding. The electron position in the atom is considered in terms of probability, and the meaning of a 1s orbital is clarified with a digital computer plot, two analogies, and animation...
Keywords: CHEM Study; chemical education; science education; Sputnik-era curriculum; quantum mechanics
Downloads: 706
[movies]Lesson 16— Teacher Training Introduction to "Biochemistry and Molecular Structure" - CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
Professor Campbell explores relationships between structure and properties found in biochemical systems. He relates the stiffness of plant tissue, which is primarily carbohydrate, to the abundance of hydrogen bonds between molecules. He contrasts this with the suppleness and relative scarcity of hydrogen bonds between the protein molecules of which animal tissue is largely composed.
Downloads: 257
[movies]Lesson 4— Teacher Training Introduction to "Catalysis" - CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
Professor Pimentel emphasizes the importance of reaction rate in determining the utility of chemical reactions. The reaction H2 + I2 -> 2HI is discussed in terms of activation energy and collision geometry. The reaction 4HBr + 02 2H20 + 2Br2 is shown to proceed by a series of two- particle collisions. The reaction 21 —» I2 is used as an example of a reaction in which a third particle must be involved in the collision to carry off the energy, or an alternate reaction path must be provided...
Downloads: 201
[movies]Lesson 3— Teacher Training Introduction to "Reaction Kinetics"
Professor Campbell shows some chemical reactions and discusses them in terms of the concepts presented in the CHEM Study film. These concepts include collisions, orientation of the colliding molecules, and activation energy. The effect of concentration on reaction rate and the idea of the rate-determining step are demonstrated using the oxygen-dextrose-methylene blue system. The role of activation energy in breaking or weakening bonds of the reacting molecules is related to the reaction 2H2 + 02...
Downloads: 295
[movies]Lesson 1—Teacher Training Introduction to "Gases and How They Combine" - CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
Professor Campbell briefly outlines the history of CHEM Study and emphasizes that the course is based on experimental evidence. Professor Pimentel discusses why the concept of combining volumes of gases is used as the principal evidence for the atomic theory when it is first introduced. He explains CHEM Study's somewhat unusual approach to quantitative problems and suggests methods of teaching chemical symbols and equations.
Downloads: 753
[movies]Lesson 5— Teacher Training Introduction to "Equilibrium" - CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
The treatment of equilibrium in CHEM Study is characterized by emphasis on the quantitative aspects and on the dynamic microscopic processes involved. Professor Pimentel demonstrates that in order to explain equilibrium, one needs not only the idea of a tendency toward minimum potential energy, but also the idea of a tendency, implemented by temperature, toward greater randomness.
Downloads: 253
[movies]Lesson 7— Teacher Training Introduction to "The Hydrogen Atom —As Viewed by Quantum Mechanics - CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
Professor Pimentel emphasizes the advantages of the quantum mechanical model of the atom, as presented in the classroom film, over the planetary model. He discusses the relationship of quantum number to the spatial distribution of the electron in the one-electron atom. He then considers the screening effect of electrons at lower energy levels upon those at higher energy levels, and the relationship of the quantum states of the electrons to the periodic table.
Downloads: 314
[movies]Lesson 15— Teacher Training Introduction to "Mechanism of an Organic Reaction" - CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
Professor Rapoport discusses the importance to the organic chemist of general principles which apply to chemistry as a whole. He stresses the importance of understanding the relationship between structure and properties and of understanding reaction mechanisms. He reviews some of the means that have been used by organic chemists to determine mechanisms, such as substitution of tracer isotopes and the modification of molecular shapes...
Downloads: 246
[movies]Lesson 10— Teacher Training Introduction to "Ionization Energy" - CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
Professor Campbell demonstrates the usefulness of the electron energy level chart and points out that ionization energy data provide some of the important evidence upon which the chart is based. In a novel way he shows the familiar flame test for sodium and uses the energy level chart to identify the energy change responsible for the yellow color.
Downloads: 249
[movies]Lesson 18—A Panel Feedback Session - CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
In-service training for chemistry teachers.
Downloads: 95
[movies]Pimentel Discusses Chemical Bonding - CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
Professor Pimentel amplifies the idea that attraction of one or more electrons for two or more nuclei accounts for bond formation. The virial theorem is presented and used to show that the lowering of the electron's total energy in bond formation can only occur through a lowering of its potential energy by being simultaneously near two or more nuclei. This principle is shown to apply equally well to covalent, ionic, and other types of bonding.
Keywords: chemistry; CHEM Study Film; George Pimentel
Downloads: 291
[movies]Synthesis of an Organic Compound (Second Edition) - CHEM Study, College of Chemistry and Lawrence Hall of Science, U.C. Berkeley
The synthesis of 2-butanone, a ketone, from 2-butanol, an alcohol, as an example of a common type of organic synthesis. Three basic steps are developed: synthesis, purification, identification. In the synthesis, 2-butanol is oxidized by sodium dichromate and sulfuric acid to yield 2-butanone. Purification is accomplished by solvent extraction with ether followed by distillation of the 2-butanone. The identity of the product is established by infrared absorption spectroscopy and then more clearly...
Keywords: CHEM Study; chemical education; science education; Sputnik-era curriculum; organic chemistry; chemical synthesis
Downloads: 499
[movies]Catalysis (Second Edition) - CHEM Study, College of Chemistry and Lawrence Hall of Science, U.C. Berkeley
A catalyst is shown to be a substance which speeds a reaction by providing a new reaction mechanism to an already possible reaction. The new mechanism ordinarily has a low activation energy. The catalyst reacts, then is regenerated at a later stage of the mechanism. Science Consultant: Professor Richard E. Powell, University of California, Berkeley. Wardâs Volume 3, CHEM Study #4127, 17 minutes. In color, 1989.
Keywords: CHEM Study; chemical education; science education; Sputnik-era curriculum; catalyst
Downloads: 231
[movies]Acid-Base Interactions (Second Edition) - CHEM Study, College of Chemistry and Lawrence Hall of Science, U.C. Berkeley
Proton-donor-acceptor theory is used to interpret the experimental behavior of acid-base indicators. Experiments and animation show the effects on indicators of changing acidity. Equilibrium constants of four indicators are determined and the indicators arranged in order of decreasing acid strength. The competition among bases for protons is shown by mixing the indicators and showing that each changes color at different total acidity.
Keywords: CHEM Study; chemical education; science education; Sputnik-era curriculum; acid; base
Downloads: 481
[movies]Pimentel Discusses the Hydrogen Atom - CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
This film was not made to be shown to students. It is a lecture by Prof. George G. Pimentel designed for teachers to reinforce background materials related to films #4148 and #4149 in the Film and Course Teachers Guides.
Keywords: chemistry; CHEM Study Film; George Pimentel
Downloads: 268
[movies]High Temperature Research (Second Edition) - CHEM Study, Lawrence Hall of Science, U.C. Berkeley
why do we know more today than we did yesterday? One reason is that scientists engage in research. The excitement of discovering new knowledge through research is illustrated by studying the bond strength of gaseous titanium monosulfide. Gaseous TiS molecules as well as gaseous titanium and sulfur atoms are produced by the vaporization of the high melting crystalline titanium monosulfide at temperatures near 2000°K...
Keywords: CHEM Study; Sputnik-era curriculum; chemical education; science education
Downloads: 124
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